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Energy for a Sustainable World From the Oil Age to a Sun-Powered Future-[1]-[2011]-[pdf]-[Vincenzo Balzani, Nicola Armaroli]

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发表于 2020-2-10 22:15:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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书籍信息:
书名: Energy for a Sustainable World: From the Oil Age to a Sun-Powered Future
语言: English
格式: pdf
大小: 4.6M
页数: 393
年份: 2011
作者: Vincenzo Balzani, Nicola Armaroli
版次: 1
出版社: Wiley-VCH

简介

An easy read, balancing the pros and cons, this book surveys the energy issue from a broad scientific perspective while considering environmental, economic, and social factors. It explains the basic concepts, provides a historical overview of energy resources, assesses our unsustainable energy system based on fossil fuels, and shows that the energy crisis is not only a tough challenge, but also an unprecedented opportunity to become more concerned about the world in which we live and the society we have built up. By outlining the alternatives for today and the future, it gives an extensive overview on nuclear energy, solar thermal and photovoltaics, solar fuels, wind power, ocean energies and other renewables, highlighting the increasing importance of electricity and the long-term perspectives of a hydrogen-based economy. An excellent source of updated and carefully documented information on the entangled aspects of the energy issue, this book is a guide for scientists, students and teachers looking for ways out of the energy and climate crisis, and the problems and disparities generated during the fossil fuel era.


目录
Energy for a Sustainable World......Page 2
Contents......Page 10
Preface......Page 18
Acknowledgments......Page 20
Notation......Page 22
Part One: Living on Spaceship Earth......Page 26
1.1 Our Spaceship Earth......Page 28
1.2.1 Population Growth and Carrying Capacity......Page 30
1.2.3 Inequalities......Page 31
1.4 Dealing with Change......Page 33
1.5 Unavoidable Questions......Page 34
2.1 The Elusive Definition of Energy......Page 36
2.2 A Taste of Basic Principles......Page 37
2.3 Converting Primary Energy into Useful Energy......Page 38
2.5 Embodied Energy......Page 39
2.7 The Immense Energy and Power Scales......Page 41
2.8 Some Energy Key Parameters......Page 42
2.9 Energy Pervasiveness Versus Energy Illiteracy......Page 44
2.10 Key Numbers: an Abacus for Energy Literacy......Page 45
3.1 Historia Magistra Vitae......Page 50
3.2 Animal Power......Page 51
3.4 Waterwheels and Windwheels......Page 53
3.5 From Wood to Coal......Page 55
3.6 Steam-Powered Machines......Page 56
3.7 Road Vehicles......Page 57
3.8.1 Conventional Engines......Page 58
3.8.2 Jet Engines......Page 59
3.9.2 From Wayfarers to ICT......Page 60
Part Two: Fossil Fuels......Page 64
4.1 What is Oil......Page 66
4.2.1 History......Page 67
4.2.3 Drilling......Page 68
4.2.4 Production......Page 70
4.3.1 Pipelines......Page 72
4.3.2 Tankers......Page 73
4.4 Oil Refining......Page 74
4.5 Oil Storage......Page 75
4.6 Unconventional Oil......Page 76
4.7 Petrochemicals......Page 78
4.8.1 World Picture......Page 79
4.8.2 US and Developed Countries......Page 80
4.8.3 China and India......Page 81
4.9 America’s Addiction to Oil......Page 82
4.10 Oil Price......Page 86
4.11.2 Oil Reserves......Page 88
4.11.3 Oil Peak......Page 89
5.1 What is Natural Gas and Where It Comes From......Page 94
5.2 Gas Properties and Definitions......Page 95
5.4 Gas Production, Consumption, and Reserves......Page 96
5.5 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)......Page 98
5.6 Natural Gas Processing......Page 100
5.7.1 Transport......Page 101
5.7.3 Distribution......Page 103
5.8.1 Energy Use......Page 104
5.8.2 Natural Gas as a Feedstock......Page 105
5.9 Unconventional Gas......Page 106
6.1 What is Coal......Page 110
6.2 Coal Extraction......Page 111
6.3 Coal Transportation and Industrial Uses......Page 112
6.4 Coal Gasification......Page 113
6.5 Coal Production, Consumption, and Reserves......Page 114
6.6 Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)......Page 115
6.7 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)......Page 118
7.1.1 Inequalities and Externalities......Page 122
7.1.3 Indirect Effects......Page 123
7.2.1 Carbon Reservoirs and Fluxes......Page 124
7.2.2 CO2 Rise and Its Measurement......Page 125
7.2.3 The Greenhouse Effect......Page 126
7.3.1 The Path to Present Understanding......Page 127
7.3.2 Melting of Ice Sheets......Page 128
7.3.4 Ocean Acidification......Page 129
7.3.5 Permafrost Melting......Page 130
7.4.1 Globalizing Smog......Page 131
7.4.2 Aerosols and Black Carbon......Page 132
7.4.4 A Complicated Picture......Page 133
7.5 Counterbalancing our Climate Influence......Page 134
7.6.1 Regulatory Efforts to Curb Greenhouse Emissions......Page 136
7.6.2 ppm or Teratons?......Page 138
7.7.1 A Complex Atmospheric Mix......Page 139
7.7.3 Ozone......Page 140
7.7.4 Particulate Matter......Page 141
7.7.6 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) and Acidic Precipitations......Page 142
7.7.7 Heavy Metals......Page 143
7.8.1 Oil Spills......Page 144
7.8.2 Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs)......Page 145
7.9 So, What?......Page 147
Part Three: Nuclear Energy......Page 148
8.1.1 Radioactivity, Mass and Energy......Page 150
8.1.2 Structure of Matter......Page 151
8.1.3 Nuclear Fission......Page 153
8.1.4 Controlled and Uncontrolled Chain Fission Reactions......Page 154
8.2.1 Past and Present......Page 155
8.2.2 Nuclear Fuel......Page 157
8.2.3 Uranium Supply......Page 158
8.2.4 Nuclear Reactor Technologies......Page 160
8.2.5 Cost and Time Issues......Page 162
8.2.6 Proliferation......Page 164
8.2.7 Safety and Security......Page 165
8.2.8 Waste Management......Page 166
8.2.9 Decommissioning and Dismantling......Page 167
8.2.10 Other Limiting Factors......Page 169
8.2.11 Perspectives......Page 170
8.2.12 Nuclear Industry Renaissance?......Page 172
8.3.1 A Difficult Problem......Page 173
8.3.2 Magnetic Confinement Approach......Page 174
8.3.4 Wishful Thinking......Page 175
Part Four: Renewable Energies......Page 180
9.1 The Origin of Sunshine......Page 182
9.2 Solar Radiation and Attenuation......Page 184
9.3 Abundant, Fairly Distributed, Vital......Page 186
9.4 Sun’s Limits: Dilution and Intermittency......Page 187
9.5 The Conversion of Solar Energy: Heat, Fuels, Electricity......Page 188
10.1 Passive Solar Harnessing in Buildings......Page 192
10.2.1.1 Collectors......Page 193
10.2.1.2 Water Management......Page 194
10.2.2 Current Deployment and Trends of Solar Thermal Panels......Page 195
10.2.3 Earth Energy Systems (EES)......Page 197
10.2.4 Solar Thermoelectrics......Page 198
10.3.1 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)......Page 201
10.3.2 Parabolic Trough Collectors......Page 203
10.3.3 Solar Towers......Page 205
10.3.5 Solar Updraft Towers (Chimneys)......Page 206
10.3.6 Cost Considerations and Carbon Footprint of Solar Thermal Electricity......Page 207
10.3.7 Solar Thermochemical Conversion......Page 208
10.4 The Birth and Rise of Photovoltaics......Page 210
10.5 Inorganic Photovoltaics: Key Principles......Page 211
10.6 Silicon Solar Cells......Page 213
10.6.1 Manufacturing of Poly- and Single-crystalline Silicon Cells......Page 214
10.6.2 Material Requirements, Life-cycle Impacts and Cost......Page 215
10.6.3 Amorphous Thin Film Silicon Cells......Page 216
10.7 Thin Film Solar Cells......Page 217
10.8 Organic Solar Cells......Page 218
10.9 Concentrated Photovoltaics and Other Innovative Concepts......Page 221
10.10 Photovoltaics: Global Installation and Market Trends......Page 222
10.11 Solar Energy: Sustainable and Affordable......Page 223
11.1 Introduction......Page 228
11.2.1 A Complex Process......Page 229
11.2.3 Natural Reaction Centers......Page 230
11.2.4 Efficiency of Photosynthesis......Page 233
11.3.2 Biofuels Today......Page 234
11.3.3 Second-generation Biofuels......Page 238
11.3.4 Biofuel Perspectives......Page 239
11.4 Future Options for Transportation Fuels......Page 240
11.5.1 The Need for Solar Fuels......Page 241
11.5.2 Choosing the Right Type of Photoreaction......Page 244
11.5.3 Choosing the Right Chemical Substrate......Page 245
11.5.5 Coupling Artificial Antenna and Reaction Center......Page 247
11.5.6 The Problem of Multi-electron Redox Processes......Page 249
11.5.7 Water Splitting by Semiconductor Photocatalysis......Page 250
11.6 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells......Page 252
11.7 The Solar Fuel Challenge......Page 253
12.1.1 The Rise of Hydropower......Page 256
12.1.2 Potential, Current Deployment, and Use......Page 257
12.1.3 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Environmental Impact......Page 258
12.1.4 Hydropower Future......Page 259
12.2.2 Wind Power Technology......Page 260
12.2.3 The Huge Potential of Wind Power......Page 263
12.2.4 Current Deployment and Trends......Page 264
12.2.5 Environmental Impact......Page 266
12.3.1 Tidal Energy......Page 267
12.3.2 Wave Energy......Page 269
12.3.3 Ocean Thermal Energy......Page 270
12.4.1 The Geothermal Resource......Page 271
12.4.2 Electricity Production......Page 272
12.4.3 Heat for Direct Use......Page 273
12.4.5 The Next Frontier: Going Deeper......Page 274
Part Five: Energy Carriers......Page 276
13.1 Basic Concepts......Page 278
13.2 Illumination......Page 280
13.3.1 Demand and Supply......Page 281
13.3.2.2 Oil or Gas Power Plants......Page 284
13.3.3 Hydroelectric Power Plants......Page 285
13.4 Traditional Electricity Grid......Page 286
13.5.1 Intermittency and Fluctuation......Page 289
13.5.3 Electricity from Solar Energy Conversion......Page 290
13.6.1 Role of Storage......Page 291
13.6.2 Pumped Hydro......Page 292
13.6.4 Flywheels......Page 293
13.6.5 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)......Page 294
13.6.7.1 Battery Requirements......Page 295
13.7.1 Hybrid and Full Electric Vehicles......Page 298
13.8 Smart Grid......Page 300
13.9 Towards an Electricity Powered World......Page 302
14.1 Introduction......Page 304
14.2 Properties and Industrial Uses......Page 305
14.3 Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier: The Scale of the Task......Page 306
14.4.2 Biomass......Page 307
14.4.3.1 General Concepts......Page 308
14.4.3.2 Hydroelectric Power......Page 309
14.4.3.5 Solar Thermal Electricity......Page 310
14.4.5 Nuclear Energy......Page 311
14.5.1 A Difficult Problem......Page 312
14.5.4 Metal Hydrides......Page 313
14.5.5 Other Systems......Page 314
14.6.1 Centralized Distribution......Page 315
14.7.1 Fuel Cells: General Concepts......Page 316
14.7.2 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Hydrogen Fuel Cells......Page 317
14.7.3 Other Types of Hydrogen Fuel Cells......Page 318
14.7.4 Reformed Methanol Fuel Cells......Page 319
14.7.5 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells......Page 320
14.8 Hydrogen Powered Vehicles......Page 321
14.9 Towards a Hydrogen Economy?......Page 323
Part Six: Scenarios for a Sustainable Future......Page 326
15.1 Reflection on the State of Our Planet: Now We Know......Page 328
15.2 Energy Demand and Supply......Page 329
15.3.1 A Focusing Illusion......Page 330
15.4 Saving the Climate......Page 331
15.6 Avoiding Nuclear Energy......Page 332
15.7.1 Natural Capital......Page 333
15.7.2 Learning to Say Enough......Page 334
15.8 Why We Need to Develop Renewable Energies......Page 335
15.9 Conclusion......Page 337
Appendix - Did You Know That … ?......Page 340
References......Page 346
Index......Page 378

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